|Merneptah Stele known as the Israel stela (JE 31408) |
from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Public Domain
One line states:
"Israel is laid waste, its seed is not;
Hurru (ie. Syria) is become a widow for Egypt."
|Reproduction of the Merenptah Stele displayed in Egypt|
- 1. Kenneth A. Kitchen, “The Victories of Merenptah, and the Nature of Their Record,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 28, no. 3 (March 1, 2004): 272.
- Bimson, John J. “Merenptah’s Israel and Recent Theories of Israelite Origins,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 49 (1991): 3–29.
- Brock, Edwin C. “The Tomb of Merenptah.” in The Treasures of the Valley of the Kings: Tombs and Temples of the Theban West Bank in Luxor, ed. Kent R. Weeks. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2001, 218–20.
- Fisher, Clarence S. “Merenptah’s Throne Room.” The Museum Journal 15 (1924): 92–100.
- Hasel, Michael G. “Israel in the Merneptah Stela,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 296 (1994): 45–61.
- Hasel, Michael G. “Merenptah’s Inscription and Reliefs and the Origin of Israel.” Pp. 19–44 in The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, ed. Beth A. Nakhai. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003.
- Hoffmeier, James K. “These Things Happened: Why a Historical Exodus is Essential for Theology” in Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith?: A Critical Appraisal of Modern and Postmodern Approaches to Scripture. Edited by James K. Hoffmeier and Dennia R. Magary. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012.
- Hoffmeier, James K. “The (Israel) Stela of Merneptah (2.6).” Pp. 40–41 in The Context of Scripture Volume II: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World, ed. William W. Hallo. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2000.
- Jaritz, Horst. “The Museum of the Mortuary Temple of Merenptah.” Egyptian Archaeology 19 (2001): 20–24.
- Kitchen, Kenneth A. Ramesside Inscriptions—Translated and Annotated, Translations, Vol. IV: Merenptah and the Late Nineteenth Dynasty, vol. 4 (Oxford, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003), 4:10–15.
- Kitchen, Kenneth A. “The Physical Text of Merenptah’s Victory Hymn (The “Israel Stela”).” The Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 24 (1994): 71–76.
- Kitchen, Kenneth A. “The Victories of Merenptah, and the Nature of Their Record.” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 28, no. 3 (March 1, 2004): 259–72.
- Veen, Peter van der, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Görg. “Israel in Canaan (Long) Before Pharaoh Merneptah? A Fresh Look at Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687.” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 2, no. 4 (2010): 15–25.
- Wood, Bryant G. “Pharaoh Merneptah Meets Israel.” Bible and Spade 18, no. 3 (2005): 65–82.
- Wood, Bryant G. “From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period” in Giving the Sense: Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts. Edited by David M. Howard, Jr. and Michael A. Grisanti. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic, 2003, 256-282.
- Yurco, Frank J. “Merenptah’s Canaanite Campaign,” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 23 (January 1, 1986): 189–215.