Wednesday, December 10, 2014



This work will conform to the abbreviations and general format conventions set out by The SBL Handbook of Style: for Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical and Early Christian Studies by Patrick H. Alexander, et al. eds. second printing (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2002) for general literary conventions, Bible translations, biblical books, Dead Sea scrolls, pseudepigraphical, early patristic books, targumic material, Mishnah, Talmud, other Rabbinic works, Nag Hammadi tractates, commonly used periodicals, reference works and serials. Unless otherwise indicated the references to the works of ancient sources reflect the Loeb Classical Library numbering system and Latin abbreviations. Note that there are several spelling variations for most sites especially as used by early explorers, since they spell the Arabic words as they sound.


Gen            Genesis

Exod          Exodus

Lev             Leviticus

Num          Numbers

Deut           Deuteronomy

Judg           Judges

Josh           Joshua

1–2 Sam     1–2 Samuel

1–2 Kgs      1–2 Kings

1–2 Chr      1–2 Chronicles

Neh            Nehemiah

Esth           Esther

Job             Job

Ps/Pss        Psalms

Prov           Proverbs

Eccl            Ecclesiastes

Isa              Isaiah

Jer              Jeremiah

Lam           Lamentations

Ezek           Ezekiel

Dan            Daniel

Obad          Obadiah

Jonah         Jonah

Mic             Micah

Nah            Nahum

Hab            Habakkuk

Zeph          Zephaniah

Mal             Malachi


Matt           Matthew

Rom           Romans

1–2 Cor      1–2 Corinthians

Gal             Galatians

Eph            Ephesians

Phil             Philippians

Col             Colossians

1–2 Thess   1–2 Thessalonians

1–2 Tim      1–2 Timothy

Phlm          Philemon

Heb            Hebrews

Jas              James

1–2 Pet       1–2 Peter

1–2–3 John 1–2–3 John

Rev             Revelation


1–2 Macc    1–2 Maccabees

Sir              Sirach/Ecclesiasticus

Wis             Wisdom of Solomon


1 En.           1 Enoch (Ethiopic Apocalypse)

2 Bar.          2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse)

3 Bar.          3 Baruch (Greek Apocalypse)

3 En.           3 Enoch (Hebrew Apocalypse)

3 Macc.        3 Maccabees

4 Macc.        4 Maccabees

Apoc. El.      Apocalypse of Elijah

Apoc. Mos.    Apocalypse of Moses

As. Mos.       Assumption of Moses

Ascen. Isa.     Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah 6–11

Ep. Arist.     The Letter of Aristeas

Jub.             Jubilees ca. 200–150 BC

Odes Sol.      Odes of Solomon

Sib. Or.        Sibylline Oracles

T. Jud.         Testament of Judah

T. Levi         Testament of Levi


11Q5          Psalms, 11QPsa Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11. DJD 4. (1965).

1QapGen   Excavated frags. from cave col. XXI (frag. pulled from side of scroll).

1QH           Hodayoth or Thanksgiving Hymns from Qumran Cave 1. Sukenik, The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (1955), pls. XXXV–LVIII.

1QIsaa        The Great Isaiah Scroll. Kutscher, The Language and Linguistic Background of the Isaiah Scroll: I QIsaa. (1974).

1QIsab        Isaiahb Scroll. Kutscher, The Language and Linguistic Background of the Isaiah Scroll: I QIsaa. (1974).

IQIsad           Isaiahd Scroll. Kutscher, The Language and Linguistic Background of the Isaiah Scroll: I QIsaa. (1974).

1QS            Serek ha-Yahad or Rule of the Community, Manual of Discipline, Trever, Scrolls from Qumran Cave I (1974).

4Q175        4QTest; Testimonia from Qumran Cave 4

4Q186        Horoscope, Allegro, Qumran Cave 4.I, DJD 5 (1968), pl. XXXI.

4QIsad        Isaiahd Scroll. Kutscher, The Language and Linguistic Background of the Isaiah Scroll: I QIsaa. (1974).

5Q12          Cairo Damascus Document, (Genizah text), Covenant of Damascus. Baillet, Milik, and de Vaux, eds. Les “petites grottes” de Qumrân. DJD 3. (1962), pl. XXXVIII.

DSS            Dead SeaScrolls


FrgPol.         Fragments on Polycarp

Herm.         Shepherd of Hermas

Ign. Phld.     Ignatius of Antioch, To the Philadelphians

Mart. Pol.     Martyrdom of Polycarp

Sim.            Shepherd of Hermas, Similitude

Herm. Vis. Shepherd Hermas, Vision

Vis.             Shepherd of Hermas, Vision


Abr.            Philo, De Abrahamo, A Treatise on the Life of the Wise Man Made Perfect by Instruction or, On the Unwritten Law, That Is To Say, On Abraham, LCL 289

Ag. Ap.       Josephus, Contra Apionem, Against Apion, LCL 186

Ann.            Tacitus, Annales, Annals, LCL 249, 312, 322

Ant.            Josephus, Antiquitates judaicae, Jewish Antiquities, LCL 242, 281, 365, 410, 433, 456, 489

Att.             Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, Letters to Atticus, LCL 7

b.                (before rabb. txt.) Babylonian Talmud, Rodkinson, ed. New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud: Original Text (1918)

b. Qidd.        Babylonian Talmud tractate Qiddušin, Qiddushin

b. Sem.         Babylonian Talmud tractate Semahot, Semaÿot or Ebel Rabbati, Great Mouning, Zlotnick (1966)

b. Yoma       Babylonian Talmud tractate Yoma (= Kippurim)

b.ʿErub.       Babylonian Talmud tractate, ʿErubin, Eruvin

Chron.          Pamphilus Eusebius, Chronicon, Chronicle, Fotheringham, ed. The Bodleian Manuscript of Jerome’s Version of the Chronicles of Eusebius (2012)

Claud.          Suetonius, Divus Claudius, The Deified Claudius, LCL 38

Comm. Apoc. Victorinus of Pettau, Commentary on the Apocalypse, Weinrich (2012); ANF 7

Comm. Matt.   Origen of Alexandria, Commentary on Matthew, ANF 9

Com.            Theodoret, Haereticarum fabularum compendium, Compendium of Heretical Accounts NPNF2

Congr.          Philo, De congressueru ditionis gratia, On Mating with the Preliminary Studies LCL 261

Cor.             Demosthenes, De corona, On the Crown, LCL 155

Ctes.            Aeschines, In Ctesiphonem, Against Ctesiphon, LCL 106

Dom.           Suetonius, Domitianus, Domitian, LCL 38

DSS            Dead Sea Scrolls

Ep.             Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, Letters, LCL 59

Fam.           Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares, Letters to Friends, LCL 230

Flac.            Cicero, Pro Flacco, Valerius Flaccus, In Defense of Lucius, LCL 324

Geogr.          Strabo, Geographica, Geography, LCL 211, 223

Good Person Philo, Quod omnis probus liber sit, That Every Good Man Is Free LCL 363

Haer.           Irenaeus, Adversus haereses, Against Heresies, ANF 1

Hell.            Xenophon, Hellenica, Hellenic Writings, LCL 88

Hist.            Herodotus, Historiae, The Histories of the Persian Wars, LCL 117, 119, 120

Hist.            Polybius, Historiae, The Histories or The Rise of the Roman Empire, LCL 161

Hist. eccl.      Pamphilus Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica, Ecclesiastical History, NPNF2; LCL 153, 265

Hist. Rom.    Dio Cassius, Historia Romana, Roman History, LCL 175, 176

Hypoth.        Philo, Hypothetica, Hypothetical Discourse. Under Fragments of Lost Works. Yonge (2007)

I. Eph.         Inscriptions of Ephesus, Wankel, ed. Die Inschriften von Ephesos. 8 vols. (1979)

Il.               Homer, Iliad, LCL 171

J.W.            Josephus, Bellum judaicum, Jewish War, LCL 203, 210, 487

Laps.           Cyprian, De lapsis, Concerning the Lapsed, ANF 5

Legat.          Philo, Legatio ad Gaium, On the Embassy to Gaius, Yonge, trans. The Works of Philo (2007); LCL 379

Luct.           Lucian, De luctu, Funerals, LCL 162

m.               The Mishnah (ed. Eugene J. Lipman)

m. Sanh.       Mishnah tractate Sanhedrin

Mart. Pionii   Martyrdom of Pionius, The Acts of the Christian Martyrs, Musurillo, ed. (1972)

Merc. cond.    Lucian of Samosata, De mercede conductis, Salaried Posts in Great Houses, LCL 130

Metam.         Apuleius, Metamorphoses, The Golden Ass, LCL 453

Metam.         Ovid, Metamorphoses, LCL 42

Mid.            Talmud tractate, Middot

Midr.           Rabbinic writing, Midrash

Mos.            Philo, De vita Mosis I, II, On the Life of Moses 1, 2, Trans. Yonge, The Works of Philo, LCL 289

Nat.            Pliny the Elder, Naturalis historia, Natural History, LCL 330, 352, 370, 394, 418, 419

On.             Eusebius, Onomasticon, On the Place-Names in the Holy Scripture, Freeman-Grenville, and Taylor, eds. (2003) or Trans. Wolf

Orat.           Aristides, Orations, Behr trans. (1981)

P.Mich.        Michigan Papyri, Libellus of the Decian Persecution, Knipfing, trans. (1923)

P.Oxy.         Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Grenfell and Hunt, trans. 75 vols. (2009)

Paed.           Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus, Christ the Educator, ANF

Pan.            Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion (Adversus haereses), Refutation of All Heresies, Williams, trans. (1993)

Phil.            Cicero, Orationes philippicae, Consisting of 14 tirades against Mark Anthony (Antonian Orations), LCL 507

Praep. Ev.     Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica, Preparation for the Gospel. Gifford (1981).

Praescr.        Tertullian, De praescriptione haereticorum, Prescription against Heretics, ANF 3

Prob.           Philo, Quod omnis probus liber sit, Good Person That Every Good Person is Free, LCL 363

Rab.            Rabbah, rabbinic writing usually on one of the books of the Pentateuch (i.e., Genesis Rabbah)

Rhod.           Dio Chrysostom, Rhodiaca (Or. 31), To the People of Rhodes, LCL 358

Siege            Aeneas Tacticus, Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus, and Onasander. LCL 156

Sifra            Sipra, The Halakic Midrash to Leviticus, Finkelstein

Silv.             Statius, Silvae, LCL 206

Somn. 1, 2    Philo, De somniis I, II, On Dreams 1 and 2. LCL 275

Strom.          Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, Miscellanies or Patchwork, ANF 2, ANF 1

t.                The Talmudic tractates of the Tosefta, Goldwurm and Scherman, eds. Talmud. 73 vols. Schottenstein Edition ( 1990)

Thuc.           Dionysius of Halicarnassus, De Thucydide, On the Character of Thucydides, LCL 465

Top.            Theodosius, De Situ Terrae Sanctae or Topografia, Topography of the Holy Land (ed. Wilkinson, 2002)

Vir. ill.        Jerome, De viris illustribus, On Illustrious Men, Halton, ed. (1999)

Vit. Apoll.    Flavius Philostratus, De Vita Apollonii, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, LCL 16, 17

Vita            Josephus, Vita, The Life, LCL 186


§                 section

AASOR      The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research

AB             The Anchor Bible

abbr.           abbreviation

ABD           The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (eds. Freedman et al., 1996)

ADAJ         Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan

AEHL       The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (Negev, 3rd ed. 1996)

AF             Apostolic Fathers

AJA           American Journal of Archaeology

ANE          ancient Near East

ANET        The Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ed. Pritchard, 1969)

ANEVT     ancient Near Eastern vassal treaties (treaty)

ANF           The Ante-Nicene Fathers (eds. Roberts et al., 10 vols, 1994)

ANRW       Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt:Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (ed. Haase and Temporini)

AS             Anatolian Studies

AUSS         Andrews University Seminary Studies

BA             The Biblical Archaeologist

BAR           Biblical Archaeology Review

BASOR       Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research

BDAG       Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. (eds. Bauer, Danker, Arndt, and Gingrich)

BDB           A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Briggs, Driver, and Brown, 1907)

BeD           Bâb edh-Dhrâʿ

BJRL          Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester

BJS             Brown Judaic Studies

BN             Biblische Notizen

BRB            Biblical Research Bulletin

BS              Bible and Spade

BSac            Bibliotheca sacra

Byz.            Byzantine

BZAW        Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft

ca.               Lat. circa, “around, about.”

CE             The Catholic Encyclopedia (eds. Pallen, Herbermann, and Pace, 19 vols. 1913).

cent.           century

ch.              chapter (s)

CIJ             Corpus inscriptionum judaricarum (Frey, vol. 3, 1936)

CNG          Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

CSNTM     The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts

DBib           Dictionary of the Bible (eds. Hastings and Selbie, 1 vol. 1909)

DBib5         A Dictionary of the Bible: Dealing with Its Language, Literature and Contents Including the Biblical Theology (eds. Hastings and Selbie, 5 vols. 1911)

DJD           Discoveries in the Judaean Desert

DJG           Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (eds. Green, McKnight, and Marshall, 1992)

DNA          Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNTB        Dictionary of New Testament Background: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship (eds. Evans and Porter, 2000)

DOA          Department of Antiquities (Jordan

e.g.             exempli gratia, for example

EAEHL     Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (eds, Avi-Yonah and Stern, 3rd ed., 4 vols. 1996)

EB             Early Bronze

EBA           Early Bronze Age

EBC           The Expositor’s Bible Commentary

ed(s).          editor(s), edited by

EDB           Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (eds., Freedman, Myers, and Beck, 2000)

EDSP         Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain

EDT           Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (ed. Elwell, 2001)

EJ              Encyclopedia Judaica (eds., Berenbaum and Skolnik, 2nd ed., 22 vols., 2006)

ESV           English Standard Version

et al.            et alii, and others

etc.             et cetera, and the rest

ExpTim       The Expository Times

Fr.              French

ft.               feet

Ger.            German

Gr.             Greek

GPS           Global Positioning System

GPR           Ground Pentrating Radar

GTCEC     The Greek Testament: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary

Heb.           Hebrew

HTR           Harvard Theological Review

IAA            Israel Antiquities Authority

i.e.              id est, that is

IEJ             Israel Exploration Journal

IGRom       Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes. 4 vols. (eds. Lafaye, and Cagnat, 1901)

Int              Interpretation

ISBE2         The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ed., Bromiley, 4 vols., 1995).

JBL            Journal of Biblical Literature

JE              The Jewish Encyclopedia (ed. Singer. 12 vols. 1906)

JEA            The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology

JETS          Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

JRS             The Journal of Roman Studies

JSOT          Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

JTS             Journal of Theological Studies

Kh.             Khirbet

KJV            King James Version

km             kilometer

Lat.             Latin

LB              Late Bronze

LBA           Late Bronze Age

LCL           Loeb Classical Library

loc. cit.        loco citato, in the place cited

LXX          The Septuagint (the Greek OT)

m               meter

MB             Middle Bronze

MBA          Middle Bronze Age

MNTC       The Moffatt New Testament Commentary

MT             Masoretic Text

NBD          New Bible Dictionary (eds., Marshall et al., 3rd ed., 1996)

NDT          New Dictionary of Theology (eds. Wright, and Ferguson, 1988)

NEA          Near Eastern Archaeology

NEAEHL  The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (eds., Stern, Levinson-Gilboa, and Aviram, 4 vols., 1993)

NIDBA      The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology (eds., Blaiklock and Harrison, 1983)

NIGTC      New International Greek Testament Commentary

NIV           New International Version

NovT          Novum Testamentum

NPNF        Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II (eds., Roberts et al., 14 vols., 1994)

NST           northern Sodom theory

NTC          New Testament Commentary

NTOA       Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus

NTS           New Testament Studies

NumC         Numismatic Chronicle

OEANE     The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (ed., Meyers, 5 vols., 1997)

OGIS          Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, Supplementum Sylloges Inscriptionum Graecarum (eds., Dittenberger et al., 4 vols., 1915)

OIM           Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago

op. cit.        opere citato, in the work cited

P               papyrus

PD             Public Domain

PECS         The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds., Stillwell, MacDonald, and McAllister, 1976)

PEF            Palestine Exploration Fund

PEFSt        Palestine Exploration Fund: Quarterly Statement

PEQ           Palestine Exploration Quarterly

pls.             plates

P.Oxy.         Oxyrhynchus Papyri

rabb.           rabbinic

RB              Revue Biblique

RevExp        Review and Expositor

sic               “so, thus, in this manner” meaning the error was in the original

SST            southern Sodom theory

SUNT        Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments

TAD          Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi

TB              Tyndale Bulletin

TDNT        Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (eds., Kittel and Friedrich, 10 vols., 1985)

TeH            Tall el-ammâm or Tall al-Hammâm

TeHEP       Tall el-ammâm Exploration Project

Tg.             Targum

TWOT        Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (eds., Harris, Archer, Jr., and Waltke, 2 vols., 1980)

UF             Ugarit Forschungen

Vg.             Vulgate

VT             Vetus Testamentum

VTSup        Supplements to Vetus Testamentum

WBC          Word Biblical Commentary

WUNT       Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament

ZDPV        Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins

ZHB           Zondervan Handbook to the Bible (eds., Alexander and Alexander, 1999)

ZNW          Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche

ZPE           Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik

ZPEB                               Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible (eds., Tenney and Silva, 5 vols., 2009)

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